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Course 3, Lesson 5 (2 hours)

(G) Relative Pronouns

This grammar lesson deals with pronouns used to combine sentences in order to give more accurate descriptions to certain words, i.e. used in the same purpose as adjectives are. These pronouns are called relative pronouns, and as usual, it is your task to study the theory carefully and do the exercises. Remember again to do the portfolio exercise.

Relatiivipronominit

  • suomen kielessä relatiivipronomineja ovat joka ja mikä
  • englannissa käytössä on useampi pronomini ja valinta riippuu korrelaatista eli siitä sanasta, johon relatiivipronomini viittaa
  • relatiivipronomineja englannissa ovat who, whom, whose, which, that ja what
  • ihmisiin viitataan sekä yksikössä että monikossa pronominilla who sekä sen eri muodoilla (whom - objektimuoto, whose - genetiivimuoto)
    I saw a girl, who was wearing a genuine Dior dress.
  • who -pronominin objektimuoto whom on nykyään melko harvinainen; objektina käytetään nykyään pronominia who
    There goes the man who I wanted to see.
  • preposition edellä käytetään muotoa whom, mutta sekin voidaan välttää sijoittamalla prepositio lauseen loppuun
    This is the man to whom I wanted to talk.
    This is the man who I wanted to talk to.
  • whose on genetiivimuoto, suomeksi jonka tai joiden
  • whose viittaa pääasiallisesti ihmisiin, mutta sitä voi käyttää myös viitatessa esineisiin ja asioihin
    The girl whose dress was a Dior looked gorgeous.
    The dog whose puppies had just been born was very tired.
    The museum whose name I forget was interesting.
  • which viittaa esineisiin tai asioihin yksikössä ja monikossa
    This is the book which I read.
    These are the books which I read.
  • pronomini which toimii sekä subjektina että objektina ja prepositio sijoitetaan yleensä lauseen loppuun
  • jos korrelaattina on kokonainen lause, on siihen viittaava relatiivipronomini aina which
    James sneezed all over his food, which
    was extremely embarrasing.
  • that on relatiivipronomini, joka voi viitata joko ihmisiin tai esineisiin ja asioihin
    Can you see the girl that is walking down the street?
    Are you reading the book that is on the table?
    Did you hear the news that my mother told me.
  • that voidaan siis korvata pronomineilla who ja which
  • tätä pronominia voi käyttää niin yksikössä kuin monikossakin ja se voi toimia subjektina ja objektina
  • prepositio sijoitetaan aina lauseen loppuun, ei koskaan pronominin that eteen
    Do you know the boy that I waved at?
  • that ei voi koskaan esiintyä irrallisissarelatiivilauseissa
  • on kuitenkin sanoja, joihin viitataan aina pronominilla that (ei siis who tai which):
    * kaikki thing-loppuiset pronominit
    Everything that you see belongs to me.
    * sanat all, little, much, few
    I've told all that I know.
    * järjestysluku tai superlatiivimuoto
    This food was the best that I've tasted.
    * sanat first, last, only
    The only person that came to my party was my mother.
  • what -pronomini on erikoinen, koska sillä ei ole erillistä korrelaattia, vaan se sisältää itsessään korrelaatin (suomessa sitä vastaa se, mitä)
    What
    she needs is discipline.
  • what ei koskaan voi esiintyä kohdassa, jossa on korrelaatti, siksi se onkin melko harvinainen
  • relatiivilauseita on kiinteitä ja irrallisia
  • kiinteät relatiivilauseet selventävät päälauseen merkitystä ja siksi ne ovat ajatuksen ymmärtämisen kannalta tärkeitä
  • kiinteitä relatiivilauseita ei koskaan siksi eroteta päälauseesta pilkulla
    My mother was the only person that came to my party.
  • irralliset relatiivilauseet antavat päälauseelle lisätietoa
  • irrallinen relatiivilause ei näin ollen ole päälauseen ymmärtämisen kannalta ehdottoman tärkeä, päälause on järkevä ilman annettua lisätietoakin
  • irrallinen relatiivilause erotetaan päälauseesta pilku(i)lla
    My friend Jill, who is a very nice person, moved to London.
  • jos on vaikeuksia päättää onko relatiivilause kiinteä vai irrallinen (eli tuleeko pilkut vai ei), on parempi jättää pilkut pois
  • relatiivipronominit voidaan jättää pois, varsinkin jos se on objektina
    This is the book (which) I borrowed from the library.
  • pronominin ollessa lauseen subjektina sitä ei voi jättää pois
    I know the boy who came to visit you yesterday.
  • relatiivipronominina voivat toimia myös where, when tai why, kun puhutaan paikasta, ajasta tai syystä; tällöin ne korvaavat rakenteen prepositio + which
    This is the city whereI've lived.relatiivilauseen voi korvata lauseenvastikkeella, jossa käytetään joko infinitiiviä tai ing -muotoa
    The boy who sits there is my friend. = The boy sitting there is my friend.

Exercise 5.1

Add the correct Relative Pronouns. Don’t forget the commas when necessary. If no pronoun is needed mark a line (-).

1. It was the biggest dog I have ever seen.

2. This is I know about Steven.

3. There is the boy I talked about.

4. All I saw was insignificant.

5. My sister you called yesterday, traveled to Japan this morning.

6. The boy is wearing the earring is my friend's boyfriend.

7. Choose photo you like.

8. Jack fell in love with the first girl he saw

9. These are boys favorite hobby is ice-hockey.

10. Greeceis a country biggest income is in tourism.

Exercise 5.2

Combine the Finnish and the English sentence. There are extra sentences in English.

1. Naapurissamme on koira, jonka pennut syntyivät tänään. A. I, who am famous, went to see a band with a weird show.
2. Olin katsomassa bändiä, joka on kuuluisa omituisesta showstaan. B. In the store I saw a friend of mine, who had just received his driver’s licence.
3. Näin kaupassa ystäväni, joka oli juuri saanut ajokorttinsa. C. The boy who said hello was a student of mine.
4. Poika, jolle sanoin ‘moi’, oli oppilaani. D. Our neighbor has a dog whose puppies were born today.
5. David oli paljon poissa tunneilta, mikä vaikutti hänen arvosanaansa. E. David, who affected his grade, was absent from the classes a lot.
6. Se kaikki, mitä olet tehnyt tässä harjoituksessa, auttaa sinua ehkä tulevaisuudessa. F. I saw a friend of mine in the store, which had just received a driver’s licence.
G. The boy who I said hello to was a student of mine.
H. You have done all in this exercise which may help you in the future.
I. Our neighbor whose puppies were born today has a dog.
J. David was absent from the classes a lot, which affected his grade.
K. I went to see a band which is famous for its weird show.
L. All that you have done in this exercise may help you in the future.

Exercise 5.3

Please write your answers in the boxes below. Your teacher will assess this exercise as part of your portfolio.

Unite the sentences by using relative pronouns. Mark the pronoun into parentheses ( ) if the pronoun can be left out.

Model sentence:

He has met a lot of nice people in his new job. It has made him very happy.
He has met a lot of nice people in his new job, which has made him very happy.

Look at the skirt. I bought it yesterday.
Look at the skirt (that/which) I bought yesterday.

I couldn’t call my mother yesterday. My mother worries about me a lot.
I couldn’t call my mother, who worries about me a lot, yesterday.

1. We couldn't watch the movie last night. The movie was about the last days of Pompeii.

2. Our friend had lost the remote control to his TV. He had bought the TV only a few days earlier.

3. The TV was otherwise in good shape. Its only problem was that you need the remote to change channels.

4. However, they are going to show the movie again next month. We all are happy about it.

5. The movie is probably the most important documentary filmed of the last days of the city. I am talking about that movie here.

6. The director was awarded for the documentary. He died two years ago in an earthquake.

7. I only hope we get to see the film next time. We had waited for the film for so long.

8. Our friend has promised to get a new remote. He doesn't want to hear about the incident for the next three years.

9. If he keeps his promise, we will watch the movie at his home. He has made the promise so solemnly.

10. We will probably enjoy the movie even more next time. The movie got great reviews in most papers.

© Tarja Männikkö ja Arto Silén

Piirrokset: Alessandra Zecca

© 2015 Otavan Opisto