We use the conditional to express uncertainty, condition or some imaginary action, and we also use it when we want to sound polite. In Finnish, you can recognize it from -isi in the verb and in English the auxiliary verb would. We can also use some other auxiliary verbs. For example,
-Would go – menisi
-Should go – pitäisi mennä
-Could go – voisi mennä
-Might go – saattaisi mennä
-Ought to go – pitäisi mennä
Would can be shortened to ’d. This is done especially in spoken language and especially with personal pronouns.
I would like to go with you. -> I’d like to go with you.
They would know his phone number. -> They’d know his phone number.
The are two conditional forms in English: the 1st conditional or the present conditional that refers to the present or the future, and the 2nd conditional or the past conditional that refers to the past.
In the first conditional the main verb follows the auxiliary in the infinitive form
would + likeTom would like this movie. (Tom pitäisi tästä elokuvasta.)
and in the second conditional it is have + the past participle.
would + have likedTom would have liked this movie.
(Tom olisi pitänyt tästä elokuvasta.)
Polite request: Would you take me to the airport tomorrow morning?
Would you like some more coffee?
Imaginary action: It would be so much fun to go to London with you!
Henry would have bought that CD for you.
Condition: Andy would get a new car today if he had enough money.
Andy’s sister would have gone to Spain if she hadn’t broken her arm.
We use the passive voice when we want the focus to be on the doing, action or activity or its object or result but not so much on who is doing something. That’s why we present those and not the doer at the beginning of the passive sentence. You can mention who the doer is but that is not always necessary.
Cakes are baked at 200 degrees Celsius.
The cake was baked by Oliver.
Streets are cleaned early in the morning.
This street was cleaned by Jacob’s crew.
We use the passive especially when we want the text to inform the reader of something and write about facts.
How do you build a sentence in the passive?
In the active voice the order is
SUBJECT PREDICATE OBJECT
In the passive the order is different
SUBJECT PREDICATE AGENT
Let’s look at the same sentence in active and passive:
ACTIVE SUBJECT PREDICATE OBJECT
Oliver bakes cakes.
PASSIVE SUBJECT PREDICATE AGENT
Cakes are baked by Oliver.
How does the sentence change?
The object of the sentence in the active becomes the subject of the sentence in the passive. It moves to the beginning of the sentence.
The subject of the sentence in the active becomes the agent in the passive. It moves to the end of the sentence and you add the preposition by in front of it.
In the passive, the predicate has the be-verb + past participle (with the ed ending). The past participle is the third form.
·In the passive, the be verb in the predicate denotes tense, singular and plural. The past participle doesn’t change. The subject of the passive sentence determines if you have to use a singular or a plural form.
It makes sense to learn well all three forms of the irregular verbs! You can find the lists in grammar books and online. You can also use these and other YouTube videos to practice common irregular verbs:
To make a passive, the verb has to be a transitive verb. Those are verbs that can have an object or objects.
ACTIVE -> PASSIVE
David fixed Susan’s car. -> Susan’s car was fixed by David.
They fixed Susan’s car. -> Susan’s car was fixed.
In the passive we leave out the doer because we don’t know who he or she is and it is not important here. The active sentence is in the past tense so the passive sentence has to be the same. Remember that it is the be verb that denotes the tense. Because the subject in the passive is singular, the correct form is was.
If the predicate has an auxiliary verb, remember that the be verb is always in the infinitive.
You can buy the tickets online. -> The tickets can be bought online.
Don’t forget the preposition when you have prepositional verbs!
I had paid for my ticket. -> My ticket was paid for.
If there are two objects, there are two ways to write the sentence in the passive.
They gave each visitor a gift. -> Each visitor was given a gift.
A gift was given to each visitor.
Here is an example of verb tenses in both the active and the passive voice:
Translate the following sentences into English. After saving your answers you will be able to see the correct answers. (Käännä seuraavat virkkeet englanniksi. Tallennettuasi vastauksesi, saat oikeat vastaukset näkyviin). Tehtävä arvioidaan S/K.
Jennie voisi viedä sinut rautatieasemalle.
Tomin pitäisi mennä kotiin.
Minä en haluaisi asua täällä.
Voisivatko he tulla takaisin aamulla?
Veljeni saattaisi pitää tästä kirjasta.
Jenny olisi halunnut matkustaa Espanjaan.
Meidän ei pitäisi mennä nukkumaan niin myöhään.
Voisimmeko mennä elokuviin huomenna?
Vanhempani eivät olisi halunneet ostaa uutta autoa.
Exercise 2.2 Translate - if-clauses
Translate the following sentences into English. (Käännä virkkeet englanniksi.)Tehtävä arvioidaan arvosanalla (4-10).
Jos Lucylla olisi hyvä työpaikka, hän ostaisi osakkeen.
Michael olisi rakentanut talon, jos hän olisi saanut lainan (loan).
Daniel oppii uimaan, jos sinä opetat häntä.
Jos sinä et lähde nyt, myöhästyt bussista.
Daisy pyöräilisi töihin, jos liikenne ei olisi niin vilkasta.
Jos olisitte opiskelleet ahkerammin, olisitte läpäisseet kokeen.
Susan ja Mark matkustaisivat useammin, jos heillä olisi aikaa.
Jos aloitamme nyt, kaikki on valmista huomiseen mennessä.
Olisitko ollut onnellinen, jos sinulla olisi ollut enemmän rahaa?
Jos olisin sinä, en työskentelisi joka viikonloppu.
Exercise 2.3 Fill in - if-clause
Fill in the following sentences with the correct alternative. (Täydennä virkkeet. Valitse oikea vaihtoehto.) Tehtävä arvioidaan arvosanalla (4-10).
Richard to move. If his mother with him, he his house. She moving. His brother to Japan next month. If Richard the money, he with his brother. If he a new car, he , too. If he rich, he abroad several times a year. He at beautiful hotels and maybe he nice cars. If he to work every day, he enough for a nice holiday.
Write the passive forms in all 8 tenses of the verbs listed below. Use the table above in the grammar section as your example. (Kirjoita seuraavien verbien passivit kahdeksassa eri aikamuodossa. Käytä kielioppiosion taulukkoa esimerkkinä.) Tehtävä arvioidaan arvosanalla (4-10).
Write these sentences in the active. Use they or people as the subject if there isn’t an agent in the passive. (Kirjoita nämä virkeet aktiivissa. Käytä they tai people subjektina, jos passiivilauseessa ei ole agenttia.) Tehtävä arvioidaan arvosanalla (4-10).
1. English is chosen by many students.
2. The floors were cleaned on Friday.
3. These books have been donated to us by Tom and Jenny.
4. All sorts of drills and saws are sold by this hardware store.
5. New computer software is being developed all the time.
6. Many new houses have been built here in the past two years.
7. Our factory was sold to a large international company.