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2a  Grammar



We use the conditional to express uncertainty, condition or some imaginary action, and we also use it when we want to sound polite. In Finnish, you can recognize it from -isi in the verb and in English the auxiliary verb would. We can also use some other auxiliary verbs. For example,­
-          Would go – menisi
-          Should go – pitäisi mennä
-          Could go – voisi mennä
-          Might go – saattaisi mennä
-          Ought to go – pitäisi mennä
Would can be shortened to  ’d.  This is done especially in spoken language and especially with personal pronouns.
I would like to go with you. -> I’d like to go with you.
They would know his phone number. -> They’d know his phone number.
The are two conditional forms in English: the 1st conditional  or the present conditional that refers to the present or the future, and the 2nd conditional or the past conditional that refers to the past.
In the first conditional the main verb follows the auxiliary in the infinitive form
          would + like                    Tom would like this movie. (Tom pitäisi tästä elokuvasta.)
and in the second conditional it is have + the past participle.
would + have liked          Tom would have liked this movie.
                                           (Tom olisi pitänyt tästä elokuvasta.)
Some examples
Polite request:                     Would you take me to the airport tomorrow morning?
        Would you like some more coffee?
Imaginary action:                 It would be so much fun to go to London with you!
                                            Henry would have bought that CD for you.
Condition:                            Andy would get a new car today if he had enough money.
                                            Andy’s sister would have gone to Spain if she hadn’t broken her arm.
                                         Photo by lore



Conditional sentences - if-clauses

There are three types of conditional sentences
  • The condition is real and it will most likely become true.
  • The condition is possible but it is very unlikely that it will become true.
  • The condition is unreal and will not become true.
You use different tenses in the main clause and the if-clause
Main clause                       if-clause                              type of condition            
Future                                  present                                real
            First conditional                    past                                     possible but unlikely
            Second conditional               past perfect                         unreal
Some examples:
This town will not have any schools if we don’t do something about it.
If you go back to school now, you will get your diploma in two years.
They would build a new library here, if this town had more tax payers.
If they lived here, their children would attend the same school as ours.
The Thompsons would not have moved if the factory hadn’t closed last year.
If they had paid Jane better, she would have stayed in her old job.
NB! In conditional clauses / sentences the correct form of be is were.
If I were you, I’d take that job!
I would not pay that much for a leather jacket if I were you.
The if-clause can come either before or after the main clause. You separate the clauses with a comma (,) when the if-clause comes first. The order does not change the meaning of the sentence.
If is the most common conjunction in the beginning of a conditional clause but use can use others
such as  unless, on condition (that) provided (that), supposing (that).
I will see you Tuesday night unless I have to work overtime.
You can also use a conditional sentence to express a wish that will not become true.
I wish I could get paid to do nothing!
I wish I could fly!

 Photo by Heath Brandon 



We use the passive voice when we want the focus to be on the doing, action or activity or its object or result but not so much on who is doing something. That’s why we present those and not the doer at the beginning of the passive sentence. You can mention who the doer is but that is not always necessary.  
    Cakes are baked at 200 degrees Celsius.
              The cake was baked by Oliver.
              Streets are cleaned early in the morning.
              This street was cleaned by Jacob’s crew.
We use the passive especially when we want the text to inform the reader of something and write about facts.
How do you build a sentence in the passive?
In the active voice the order is
SUBJECT               PREDICATE          OBJECT
In the passive the order is different
SUBJECT               PREDICATE          AGENT
Let’s look at the same sentence in active and passive:
ACTIVE                                 SUBJECT               PREDICATE          OBJECT
                                              Oliver                    bakes                    cakes.
PASSIVE                              SUBJECT               PREDICATE           AGENT
                                              Cakes                  are baked               by Oliver.
How does the sentence change?
  • The object of the sentence in the active becomes the subject of the sentence in the passive. It moves to the beginning of the sentence.
  • The subject of the sentence in the active becomes the agent in the passive. It moves to the end of the sentence and you add the preposition by in front of it.
  • In the passive, the predicate has the be-verb + past participle (with the ed ending). The past participle is the third form.
·         In the passive, the be verb in the predicate denotes tense, singular and plural. The past participle doesn’t change. The subject of the passive sentence determines if you have to use a singular or a plural form.
It makes sense to learn well all three forms of the irregular verbs! You can find the lists in grammar books and online. You can also use these and other YouTube videos to practice common irregular verbs:
Here are some Perunakellari -sites where you can practice writing them:
To make a passive, the verb has to be a transitive verb. Those are verbs that can have an object or objects.
ACTIVE                                     ->                PASSIVE
David fixed Susan’s car.           ->            Susan’s car was fixed by David.
They fixed Susan’s car.             ->            Susan’s car was fixed.
In the passive we leave out the doer because we don’t know who he or she is and it is not important here. The active sentence is in the past tense so the passive sentence has to be the same. Remember that it is the be verb that denotes the tense. Because the subject in the passive is singular, the correct form is was.
If the predicate has an auxiliary verb, remember that the be verb is always in the infinitive.
You can buy the tickets online. -> The tickets can be bought online.
Don’t forget the preposition when you have prepositional verbs!
I had paid for my ticket. -> My ticket was paid for.
If there are two objects, there are two ways to write the sentence in the passive.
They gave each visitor a gift. -> Each visitor was given a gift.
                                                                A gift was given to each visitor.
Here is an example of verb tenses in both the active and the passive voice:



  verb be + past participle
simple present



is given

are given

present continuous

is giving

are giving

is being given

are being given

simple past gave

was given

were given

past continuous

was giving

were giving

was being given

were being given

present perfect

has given

have given

has been given

have been given

past perfect had given had been given
future will will give will be given
infinitive (to) give (to) be given



 Photo by Emily Barney


Exercise 2.1 Translate - Conditional

Translate the following sentences into English. After saving your answers you will be able to see the correct answers.
(Käännä seuraavat virkkeet englanniksi. Tallennettuasi vastauksesi, saat oikeat vastaukset näkyviin). Tehtävä arvioidaan S/K.

Jennie voisi viedä sinut rautatieasemalle.

Tomin pitäisi mennä kotiin.

Avaisitko ikkunan?

Minä en haluaisi asua täällä.

Voisivatko he tulla takaisin aamulla?

Veljeni saattaisi pitää tästä kirjasta.

Jenny olisi halunnut matkustaa Espanjaan.

Meidän ei pitäisi mennä nukkumaan niin myöhään.

Voisimmeko mennä elokuviin huomenna?

Vanhempani eivät olisi halunneet ostaa uutta autoa. 


Exercise 2.2 Translate - if-clauses

Translate the following sentences into English.
(Käännä virkkeet englanniksi.) Tehtävä arvioidaan arvosanalla (4-10).

Jos Lucylla olisi hyvä työpaikka, hän ostaisi osakkeen.

Michael olisi rakentanut talon, jos hän olisi saanut lainan (loan).

Daniel oppii uimaan, jos sinä opetat häntä.

Jos sinä et lähde nyt, myöhästyt bussista.

Daisy pyöräilisi töihin, jos liikenne ei olisi niin vilkasta.

Jos olisitte opiskelleet ahkerammin, olisitte läpäisseet kokeen.

Susan ja Mark matkustaisivat useammin, jos heillä olisi aikaa.

Jos aloitamme nyt, kaikki on valmista huomiseen mennessä.

Olisitko ollut onnellinen, jos sinulla olisi ollut enemmän rahaa?

Jos olisin sinä, en työskentelisi joka viikonloppu.



Exercise 2.3 Fill in - if-clause

Fill in the following sentences with the correct alternative.
(Täydennä virkkeet. Valitse oikea vaihtoehto.) Tehtävä arvioidaan arvosanalla (4-10).

Richard to move. If his mother with him, he his house. She moving. His brother to Japan next month. If Richard the money, he with his brother. If he a new car, he , too. If he rich, he abroad several times a year. He at beautiful hotels and maybe he nice cars. If he to work every day, he enough for a nice holiday. 

  Photo by Alan Levine


Exercise 2.4 Verbs in Passive Voice 

Write the passive forms in all 8 tenses of the verbs listed below. Use the table above in the grammar section as your example. (Kirjoita seuraavien verbien passivit kahdeksassa eri aikamuodossa. Käytä kielioppiosion taulukkoa esimerkkinä.) Tehtävä arvioidaan arvosanalla (4-10). 










 Photo by Ed Schipul


Exercise 2.5 Write these sentences in the passive.

(Kirjoita nämä virkkeet passiivissa.)

After saving your answers you will be able to see the correct answers.
(Tallennettuasi vastauksesi saat oikeat vastaukset näkyviin.) Tehtävä arvioidaan S/K.
1. The boys lost my hammer.        
2. Taylor made the coffee.                                            
3. Richard is washing my car.                                     
4. They had baked a hundred pies.                            
5. They will bring the flowers tomorrow morning.    

6. My grandfather was building this house.

7. Emma takes care of our dog.

8. Lisa and Tim have invited Richard to the birthday party.




                                                    Photo by Susy Morris 


Exercise 2.6 Passive to Active

Write these sentences in the active. Use they or people as the subject if there isn’t an agent in the passive.
(Kirjoita nämä virkeet aktiivissa. Käytä they tai people subjektina, jos passiivilauseessa ei ole agenttia.) Tehtävä arvioidaan arvosanalla (4-10).

1. English is chosen by many students.
2. The floors were cleaned on Friday. 
3. These books have been donated to us by Tom and Jenny.
4. All sorts of drills and saws are sold by this hardware store.
5. New computer software is being developed all the time. 

6. Many new houses have been built here in the past two years.

7. Our factory was sold to a large international company.

8. Tom had been sent to Toronto by the company.



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