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Infinitives and -ing forms
When one verb follows another verb, it is sometimes in the infinitive form and sometimes in the –ing form. The infinitive form always has the particle to in front of the verb. For example
I want to see a musical. (want + infinitive)
I enjoy seeing musicals. (enjoy + V/ing)
The choice between the infinitive and the –ing forms depends on the first verb. In general, the second verb is in the infinitive form. However, there are some verbs that are usually followed by a verb in the –ing form:
admit, appreciate, avoid, consider, deny, dislike, enjoy, fancy, feel like, finish, forgive, give up, can't help, imagine, involve, keep, mention, mind, miss, postpone, practise, put off, quit, report, risk, can't stand, suggest, understand
Look at these examples:
having a second job.
Do you feel like
going to the theater?
I can't help
liking his silly movies.
I can't stand
having to wait long.
Some verbs can be followed by the infinitive form or the –ing form without any or much change in meaning. These verbs include
begin, start, continue, hate, like, love, prefer, propose
I like to act in musicals.
I like acting in musicals.
I prefer reading books.
I prefer to read books.
Use the – ing form after the following phrases
feel like, there is nothing like, be busy, be used to, be worth
I don’t feel like going out.
The children were busy rehearsing their roles.
Mark is used to singing the solos.
In addition, keep in mind come and go when you talk about activities.
Would you like to go dancing with me?
Would you like to come shopping with me?
To review these, watch this instruction video
Now, here are some online quizzes where you can practice:
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Indefinite pronouns are used to express quantity or amount, often without being specific or exact. They can function as other parts of speech, specifically as adjectives or nouns.
Indefinite pronouns include
and the compounds
someone, somebody, something
anyone, anybody, anything
everyone, everybody, everything
no one, nobody, nothing
The ones ending in -one ja -body refer to people and the ones ending in -thing to concrete and abstract things.
Here are more indefinite pronouns:
each, both, another, other, others, all
each is always singular and can function as an adjective or a noun
Please give each (person) a text book.
both can also function as an adjective or noun and it’s always plural (=two)
Please give both (students) a text book.
another is always singular but other can be singular or plural: both can function as adjectives
Here is another text book.
Here is the other text book.
Here are other text books.
others functions as a noun and refers to people (= other people)
We got our books but the others did not get theirs yet.
all means kaikki in Finnish when in front of a plural
All text books were handed out.
and it means koko in Finnish when it precedes a singular noun + definite article / possessive pronoun
We will use those text books all the time.
one – the other = toinen – toinen
some – others = toiset – toiset
some – the others = toiset – (kaikki) toiset
one another / each other = toinen toistaan
Other words that refer to an unspecified quantity or amount include
much, many, several, whole
For some combined listening comprehension (American Southern accent) and grammar, watch this instructional video
You can practice using indefinite pronouns here
To end on a lighter note, you can learn them this way, too.
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Articles and Proper Nouns
A proper noun is the name of a person, a place or an organization. Proper nouns have special rules when it comes to using articles. If you use an article, it is the definite article the.
There are many rules but there are also many exceptions to these rules. It may be best just to learn the basic rules and memorize the exceptions.
No article used
No article with names of people
Timothy, Carolyn, John Irving, Margaret Atwood
No article with Mr., Ms., President, King, Queen, Uncle, Aunt, etc. when you spell them with a capital letter and use them in front of a name
President Halonen >< the president
Queen Elisabeth >< the queen of rock n’ roll
No article with names of companies
Sony, Dreamworks, MGM, Warner Brothers
No article with names of places such as airports, railway stations, etc.
Kennedy Airport, Waterloo Station
No article if the shop, restaurant, bank, church etc. has a name in it
McDonald’s, Macy’s, Harrods, St. Paul’s Cathedral, St. Mary’s Church
No article with names of lakes or mountains
Lake Michigan, Mount Everest
With the following proper nouns there are some exceptions
In general, there is no article with names of places: towns, regions, countries, continents or islands
Manchester, Melbourne, California, Ireland, Corsica,
Northern Finland, South America
Exceptions: If the country’s name includes the words States, Kingdom, Republic
the United States, the United Kingdom, the Republic of Finland
In general, there is no article with names of streets, roads, squares, parks, etc.
Downing Street, Fifth Avenue, Piccadilly Circus, Central Park
the Strand, the Mall
Article the is used
with names of canals, rivers, seas and ocean
the Panama Canal, the Amazon, the Mediterranean (Sea), the Pacific Ocean
with names of people and places such as countries, islands or mountain ranges in the plural
the Clintons, the Netherlands, the Bahamas, the British Isles, the Alps
if the name has the preposition of in it
the Tower of London, the Statue of Liberty, the University of Maryland
with names of hotels, restaurants, cinemas, theatres, museums, ships, newspapers and organizations
The Ritz (Hotel), the Royal Theatre, the British Museum, the Tate Gallery, the White House, the Titanic, the Washington Post, the European Union, the United Nations
However, when it comes to names of buildings and such, it’s a bit of a zoo because there is less of a pattern
London Zoo, the San Diego Zoo, London Aquarium, Buckingham Palace,
the Empire State Building, the Eiffel Tower, the London Eye
To review using articles - and to get some listening comprehension exercise - watch these two instructional videos:
Then do these quizzes to test your knowledge:
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